Bringing Light to the Darkness of Human Trafficking (Trafficking in Persons)

763354 Analysis Flow Monitoring and Human Trafficking Surveys in the Mediterranean and Beyond 26 April 2017

Report from International Organization for Migration


2,387 interviews were conducted in Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, Hungary, Serbia, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia from February to April 2017

About DTM`s Flow Monitoring Surveys

DTM Flow Monitoring Survey (FMS) started in October 2015 and is being conducted within the framework of IOM’s research on populations on the move through the Mediterranean and Western Balkan Routes to Europe. This report presents the results of a round carried out by 21 IOM data collectors in Italy (Central Mediterranean route), Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Serbia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (Eastern Mediterranean route) from February to April 2017.

This round of surveys is part of the IOM’s Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) implementation in the Mediterranean, with an upgraded version of the questionnaire compared to that implemented in 2015-2016. The new questionnaire has been revised following the feedback received from field missions, different IOM departments and relevant partners, with an emphasis on enhancing the protection aspect, especially in relation to children on the move and human trafficking and other exploitative practices indicators, that now also refer to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV).

The survey gathers information about migrants’ profiles, including age, sex, areas of origin, levels of education and employment status before migration, key transit points on their route, cost of the journey, reasons for moving and intentions. The revised questionnaire allows for greater insight into migrants´decision making process in the country of origin and in the country of departure/residence. It consists of more detailed questions on family and employment status before departure, additional child focused questions (eg. education levels, the last time a child had access to education) and it allows the interviewer to capture more locations where the incidents occured. The Eastern Mediterranean survey also includes six questions that are proxy indicators for potential human trafficking or exploitative practices that the respondents or other migrants travelling with them might have experienced on the route. The Central Mediterranean survey is identical with the exception of two additional pilot questions within the Human Trafficking and Other Exploitative Practices Prevalence Indication module. Further information about the questionnaire, proxy indicators and survey implementation can be found in the Methodology section.


This report contains an analysis of the responses provided by migrants and refugees travelling along the Central Mediterranean Route and the Eastern Mediterranean Route. The first section provides analysis on interviewees` responses to human trafficking and other exploitative prevalence indicators. The second section explains the context of the two migration routes.

The Central Mediterranean sample is composed of 1,602 responses of migrants interviewed in 21 different locations in the Italian regions of Sicily, Apulia, Lombardy and Friuli Venezia Giulia. The Eastern Mediterranean route has a sample of 1,221 interviews with migrants conducted in 16 different transit, exit and entry locations and reception/accommodation centres in Serbia, Greece, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Hungary and Bulgaria.

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